Nouns

Pronoun - Subject

 

Practice saying and writing these pronouns.  They are used as the main subject of a sentence.  In other words, the subject is the noun (or thing) that is doing the verb.

Pronouns Subject.PNG

This video will help you practice pronouncing and understanding when to use these pronouns.

Next - let's see how to use the verb "to be" with the above pronouns

 

New Vocabulary

Now that you have practiced conjugating the verb - To Be - "Hona," practice making simple sentences with your old and new vocabulary.  Open the pdf file below that includes new vocabulary and the worksheet for Sentence Builder #1 - Hona - "To Be"

Sentence Builder 1 Vocab.PNG

Here are some more sample sentences for you (with the literal translation at the end.)

  • Subjects are at the start of your sentence

  • Verbs are at the end

 

I am Deepak (or use your name) - मैं दीपक हूं – main Deepak hoon.    (I Deepak am)

I am man - मैं आदमी हूँ - main aadmee hoon    (I man am)

I am woman - मैं औरत हूँ - main aurat hoon    (I woman am)

You are child - तुम बच्चे हो - tum bachche ho    (You child are)

You are not child तुम बच्चे नहीं हो - tum bachche nahin ho    (You child not are)

They are children- वे बच्चे हैं – ve bachche hain    (They children are)

They are nine children - वे नौ बच्चे हैं ve nau bachche hain    (They nine children are)

I am fine - मैं ठीक हूँ – main theek hoon    (I fine am)

I am happy - मैं खुश हूँ - main khush hoon    (I happy am)

I am not happy - मैं खुश नहीं हूँ – main khush nahin hoon    (I happy not am)

She is beautiful - वह सुंदर है - vah sundar hai    (She beautiful is)

Let's Practice - Print out the Sentence Builder #1 Worksheets, and practice using the above vocabulary words in sentences with the verb "to be" - Honaa - होना.

 

For more vocabulary words and practice, use the JW Language App

Choose "Grammar" then choose "Personal Pronouns"

Then choose "I am patient" or

"I am a baker"(practice teacher and student)

 

Expressing Possession - It's Mine or yours

Now that we've learned the verb "to have" using "पास - paas", let's learn some new vocabulary and make some sentences.  We can use "ke paas" for small objects but not for relatives (like your brother) or parts of the body.

Notice that you need to make "hai" or "hain" match what you have (not the person who has it) because you're not exactly saying "I have"; instead, what you're really saying is "Near to me is one apple."  or "Near to me are two apples." or "Two apples are near to me."

Apple vocabulary.PNG
I have an apple.PNG
 

For more vocabulary words and practice, use the JW Language App

Choose "Grammar" then choose "Personal Pronouns"

Then choose "I have one book."

My or mine

Another way to express possession is to say "my" or "mine.  When you're trying to say that someone owns something, you have to make the Hindi word for "my," "your" or "his" match with whether the thing they own is masculine or feminine, singular or plural.  In English, we don't say whether an apple is male or female, but in Hindi, all items are usually referred to as male or female.  With time, you just have to memorize which one is masculine and which one is feminine.

मेरा – mera – "my" for masculine nouns – singular

मेरे - mere – "my" for masculine nouns - plural (or respect)

मेरी - meri - "my" for feminine nouns- singular and plural

Check out the examples below and notice of the pattern of masculine or feminine, single or plural.

mera nouns.PNG

Watch this video to learn how to pronounce and use mera, mere and meri

Notice in the examples below, as we introduce our family, that "mere", instead of the expected"mera", is often used when saying "my husband."  You'll notice this example in the JW Library App along with google translate.  Why?  The plural "mere" can also be used out of respect and not just because the nouns are plural.

my husband.PNG

Strangely, it's not always about us, and we don't own everything in the world.  So what words do we use to express someone else owns something?  Remember, no matter who owns it, you match, "mine", or "your" or "his" with the object owned, not the owner.

Pronouns - Possessive

Now that we understand how to say "my", let's learn how to say that someone else owns something.  It follows the same pattern as above for "my"; you add

"a" for masculine singular,

"e" for masculine plural, and

"ee" for feminine singular or plural.

Watch these videos so you can practice saying the different possessive pronouns

possessive pronouns.PNG

For more vocabulary words and practice, use the JW Language App

Choose "Grammar" then choose "Personal Pronouns"

Then choose "My Book is on the Chair"

 

Direct Object Pronoun Versus Subject Pronoun

A pronoun is a word used for another noun instead of constantly repeating the original noun.

For example, in the sentences:  "I met Frank.  He is a nice man."  

Instead of repeating Frank's name, we used the word "he", as a pronoun in the second sentence.

What is the difference between an object pronoun and a subject pronoun? 

The subject pronoun is the person or thing that is doing the verb

The object pronoun is the person or thing that the verb is being done to.

For example:

"I saw the bear."

The subject is "I" because it is the noun doing the verb of seeing.

The object is "bear" because that is what was seen.

On the other hand, it could be the bear that is doing the verb and he is seeing us, like in this sentence:  

"The bear saw me."

Now,

The subject is "bear"

The object is "me".

In English, sentence order is:

Subject, Verb, Object

In Hindi, sentence order is:

Subject, Object, Verb

We should memorize the list at the top of Subject Pronouns and the list below of Direct Object Pronouns

direct object pronouns.PNG
 

Practice vocabulary

This website

https://www.memrise.com/course/197/basic-hindi/1/

will help you practice these 25 vocabulary words and phrases.  It is a list of common phrases, nouns and verbs.  It will help you recognize and say the words written in Hindi, and then spell them as well.  Once you're good at them, try putting them into the simple sentences you learned above.

25 vocab words.PNG